Selasa, 15 Juli 2008


Majapahit was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when it dominated other kingdoms in the southern Malay Archipelago, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali, and the Philippines.
The Majapahit empire was the last of the major
Hindu empires of the Malay archipelago and is considered one of the greatest states in Indonesian history.[2] Its influence extended to states on Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Borneo and eastern Indonesia, though the extent of its influence is the subject of debate

Little physical evidence of Majapahit remains,
[4] and its detailed history is not very clear.[5] The main sources that are used by historians are: the Pararaton ('Book of Kings') written in Kawi language and Nagarakertagama in Old Javanese.[6] Pararaton is mostly about Ken Arok (the founder of Singhasari) but includes a number of shorter narrative fragments about the formation of Majapahit. Nagarakertagama, on the other hand, is an old Javanese epic poem written during the Majapahit golden age under the reign of Hayam Wuruk after which events are not so clear.[5] In addition, there are some inscriptions in Old Javanese and Chinese records.
The accuracy of all of the Javanese sources is in dispute. There is no doubt that they incorporate some non-historical, mythological elements, and some scholars such as C. C. Berg consider the entire corpus to be not a record of the past, but a supernatural means by which the future can be determined.
[7] However, most scholars do not accept this view, as the basic outline corresponds with Chinese records that could not share this intention. The list of rulers and the nature of the state, in particular, seem rather certain.
After defeating Srivijaya in Sumatra in 1290, Singhasari became the most powerful kingdom in the area. Kublai Khan, the ruler of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty, challenged Singhasari by sending emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanegara, the last ruler of Singhasari, refused to pay the tribute. In 1293, Kublai Khan sent a massive expedition of 1,000 ships to Java.
By that time,
Jayakatwang, the Adipati (Duke) of Kediri, a vassal state of Singhasari, had usurped and killed Kertanagara. After being pardoned by Jayakatwang with the aid of Madura's regent, Arya Wiraraja; Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara's son-in-law, was given the land of Tarik timberland. He then opened that vast timberland and built a new village there. The village was named Majapahit, which was taken from a fruit name that had bitter taste in that timberland (maja is the fruit name and pahit means bitter). When Mongolian Yuan army sent by Kublai Khan arrived, Wijaya allied himself with the army to fight against Jayakatwang. Once Jayakatwang was destroyed, Raden Wijaya forced his allies to withdraw from Java by launching a surprise attack.[8] Yuan's army had to withdraw in confusion as they were in hostile territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds home; otherwise, they would have had to wait for another six months on a hostile island.
In AD 1293,
Raden Wijaya founded a stronghold with the capital Majapahit. The exact date used as the birth of the Majapahit kingdom is the day of his coronation, the 15th of Kartika month in the year 1215 using the Javanese çaka calendar, which equates to November 10, 1293. During his coronation he was given formal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The new kingdom faced challenges. Some of Kertarajasa's most trusted men, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though unsuccessfully. It was suspected that the mahapati (equal with prime minister) Halayudha set the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king's opponents, to gain the highest position in the government. However, after following the death of the last rebel Kuti, Halayudha was captured and jailed for his tricks, and then sentenced to death.[9] Wijaya himself died in AD 1309.
Wijaya's son and successor,
Jayanegara was notorious for immorality. One of his sinful acts was taking his own step-sisters as wives. He was entitled Kala Gemet, or "weak villain". In AD 1328, Jayanegara was murdered by his doctor, Tantja. His stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni, was supposed to replace him, but Rajapatni retired from court to become a bhiksuni (a female Buddhist monk) in a monastery. Rajapatni appointed her daughter, Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, or known in her formal name as Tribhuwannottungadewi Jayawishnuwardhani, as the queen of Majapahit under Rajapatni's auspices. During Tribhuwana’s rule, the Majapahit kingdom grew much larger and became famous in the area. Tribhuwana ruled Majapahit until the death of her mother in AD 1350. She was succeeded by her son, Hayam Wuruk.

Hayam Wuruk, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in AD 1350–1389. During his period, Majapahit attained its peak with the help of his prime minister, Gajah Mada. Under Gajah Mada's command (AD 1313–1364), Majapahit conquered more territories. In 1377, a few years after Gajah Mada's death, Majapahit sent a punitive naval attack against Palembang,[2] contributing to the end of the Srivijayan kingdom. Gajah Mada's other renowned general was Adityawarman, known for his conquest in Minangkabau.
According to the book of
Nagarakertagama pupuh (canto) XIII and XIV mentioned several states in Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, New Guinea, and some parts of Philippines islands as under Majapahit realm of power. This source mentioned of Majapahit expansions has marked the greatest extent of Majapahit empire.
Nagarakertagama, written in 1365 depict a sophisticated court with refined taste in art and literature, and a complex system of religious rituals. The poet describes Majapahit as the centre of a huge mandala extending from New Guinea and Maluku to Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. Local traditions in many parts of Indonesia retain accounts in more or less legendary from 14th century Majapahit's power. Majapahit's direct administration did not extend beyond east Java and Bali, but challenges to Majapahit's claim to overlordship in outer islands drew forceful responses. [10]
The nature of the Majapahit empire and its extent is subject to debate. It may have had limited or entirely notional influence over some of the
tributary states in included Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Kalimantan and eastern Indonesia over which of authority was claimed in the Nagarakertagama.[11] Geographical and economic constraints suggest that rather than a regular centralised authority, the outer states were most likely to have been connected mainly by trade connections, which was probably a royal monopoly.[2] It also claimed relationships with Champa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even sent missions to China.[2]
Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighboring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded,
Muslim traders and proselytizers began entering the area

Majapahit Terracotta Piggy Bank, 14-15 century AD Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Taxes and fines were paid in cash. Javanese economy had been partly monetisided since the late 8th century, using gold and silver coins. In about the year 1300, in the reign of Majapahit's first king, an important change took place: the indigenous coinage was completely replaced by imported Chinese copper cash. The reason for this is not given in any source, but most scholars assume it was due to the increasing complexity of Javanese economy and a desire for a
currency system that used much smaller denominations suitable for use in everyday market transactions. This was a role for which gold and silver are not well suited. [16]
Some idea of scale of the internal economy can be gathered from scattered data in inscriptions. The Canggu inscriptions dated 1358 mentions 78 ferry crossings in the country (mandala Java).
[17] Majapahit inscriptions mention a large number of occupational specialities, ranging from gold and silver smiths to drink vendors and butchers. Although many of these occupations had existed in earlier times, the proportion of the population earning an income from non-agrarian pursuits seems to have become even greater during the Majapahit era.
The great prosperity of Majapahit was probably due to two factors. Firstly, the northeast lowlands of Java were suitable for
rice cultivation, and during Majapahit's prime numerous irrigation projects were undertaken, some with government assistance. Secondly, Majapahit's ports on the north coast were probably significant stations along the route to obtain the spices of Maluku, and as the spices passed through Java they would have provided an important source of income for Majapahit. [18]
The Nagarakertagama states that the fame ruler of Wilwatikta (a synonym for Majapahit) attracted foreign merchants from far and wide, including
Indians, Khmers, Siamese, and Chinese among others. A special tax was levied against some foreigners, possibly those who had taken up semi-permanent residence in Java and conducted some type of enterprise other than foreign trade
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Mount Everest

Discovery of the highest mountain
1808, the British began the Great Trigonometric Survey of India to determine the location and names of the world's highest mountains. Starting in southern India, the survey teams gradually moved northward using giant 1100 pound (500 kg) theodolites (each requiring 12 men to carry) to measure heights as accurately as possible. They reached the Himalayan foothills by the 1830s, but Nepal was unwilling to allow the British to enter the country due to suspicions of political aggression and possible annexation. Several requests by the surveyors to enter Nepal were turned down.
The British were forced to continue their observations from
Terai, a region south of Nepal which is parallel to the Himalayas. Conditions in Terai were difficult due to torrential rains and malaria — three survey officers died from malaria while two others had to retire due to failing health.
Nonetheless, in
1847, the British pressed on and began detailed observations of the Himalayan peaks from observation stations up to 150 mi (240 km) away. Weather restricted work to the last three months of the year. In November 1847, Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India made a number of observations from Sawajpore station located in the eastern end of the Himalayas. At the time, Kangchenjunga was considered the highest peak in the world, and with interest he noted a peak beyond it, some 140 mi (230 km) away. John Armstrong, one of Waugh's officials, also saw the peak from a location further west and called it peak 'b'. Waugh would later write that the observations indicated that peak 'b' was higher than Kangchenjunga, but due to the great distance of the observations, closer observations were required for verification. The following year, Waugh sent a survey official back to Terai to make closer observations of peak 'b', but clouds thwarted all attempts.
1849, Waugh dispatched James Nicolson to the area. Nicolson was able to make two observations from Jirol, 118 mi (190 km) away. Nicolson then took the largest theodolite and headed east, obtaining over 30 observations from five different locations, with the closest being 108 mi (174 km) away from the peak. [6]
Nicolson retreated to
Patna on the Ganges to perform the necessary calculations based on his observations. His raw data gave an average height of 30,200 ft (9,200 m) for peak 'b', but this did not take into account light refraction which distorts heights. The number clearly indicated, however, that peak 'b' was higher than Kangchenjunga. Unfortunately, Nicolson came down with malaria and was forced to return home, calculations unfinished. Michael Hennessy, one of Waugh's assistants, had begun designating peaks based on Roman Numerals, with Kangchenjunga named Peak IX, while peak 'b' now became known as Peak XV.[6]
1852, stationed at the survey's headquarters in Dehradun, Radhanath Sikdar, an Indian mathematician and surveyor from Bengal, was the first to identify Everest as the world's highest peak, using trigonometric calculations based on Nicolson's measurements.[7] An official announcement that Peak XV was the highest was delayed for several years as the calculations were repeatedly verified. Waugh began work on Nicolson's data in 1854, and along with his staff spent almost two years working on the calculations, having to deal with the problems of light refraction, barometric pressure, and temperature over the vast distances of the observations. Finally, in March 1856 he announced his findings in a letter to his deputy in Calcutta. Kangchenjunga was declared to be 28,156 ft (8,582 m), while Peak XV was given the height of 29,002 ft (8,840 m). Waugh concluded that Peak XV was "most probably the highest in the world".[6] Peak XV was found to be exactly 29,000 feet (8,839 m) high, but was publicly declared to be 29,002 ft (8,840 m). The arbitrary addition of 2 feet (60 cm) was to avoid the impression that an exact height of 29,000 feet was nothing more than a rounded estimate.[8]
With the height now established, what to name the peak was clearly the next challenge. While the survey was anxious to preserve local names if possible (e.g., Kangchenjunga and
Dhaulagiri were local names), Waugh argued that he was unable to find any commonly used local name. Waugh's search for a local name was hampered by Nepal and Tibet being closed to foreigners at the time. Many local names existed, with perhaps the best known in Tibet for several centuries being Chomolungma, which had appeared on a 1733 map published in Paris by the French geographer D'Anville. However, Waugh argued that with the plethora of local names, it would be difficult to favour one specific name over all others. So, he decided that Peak XV should be named after George Everest, his predecessor as Surveyor General of India.[6] He wrote:
I was taught by my respected chief and predecessor, Colonel Sir George Everest to assign to every geographical object its true local or native appellation. But here is a mountain, most probably the highest in the world, without any local name that we can discover, whose native appellation, if it has any, will not very likely be ascertained before we are allowed to penetrate into Nepal. In the meantime the privilege as well as the duty devolves on me to assign…a name whereby it may be known among citizens and geographers and become a household word among civilized nations.
George Everest opposed the name suggested by Waugh and told the
Royal Geographical Society in 1857 that Everest could not be written in Hindi nor pronounced by "the native of India". Waugh's proposed name prevailed despite the objections, and in 1865, the Royal Geographical Society officially adopted Mount Everest as the name
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Christ the Redeemer (statue)

The idea for erecting a large statue atop Corcovado had been around since mid 1850s, when Catholic priest Pedro Maria Boss requested financing from Princess Isabel to build a large religious monument. Princess Isabel did not think much of the idea, which was completely dismissed in 1889, when Brazil became a Republic, with laws mandating the separation of church and state.[5]
The second proposal for a large
landmark statue on the mountain was made in 1921 by the Archdiocese of Rio de Janeiro.[citation needed] The archdiocese organized an event called Semana do Monumento ("Monument Week") to attract donations. The donations came mostly from Brazilian Catholics.[1] The designs considered for the "Statue of the Christ" included a representation of the Christian cross, a statue of Jesus with a globe in his hands, and a pedestal symbolizing the world.[citation needed] The statue of Christ the Redeemer with open arms was chosen.
Christ the Redeemer with Corcovado in background.
engineer Heitor da Silva Costa designed the statue; it was sculpted by Paul Landowski, a French monument sculptor of Polish origin.[6][1] A group of engineers and technicians studied Landowski's submissions and the decision was made to build the structure out of reinforced concrete (designed by Albert Caquot) instead of steel, more suitable for the cross-shaped statue.[5] The outer layers are soapstone, chosen for its enduring qualities and ease of use.[2] Construction took nine years, from 1922 to 1931. The monument was opened on October 12, 1931.[2][3] The cost of the monument was $250,000. The statue was lit by a battery of floodlights triggered remotely by shortwave radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi, stationed 5,700 miles (9,200 km) away in Rome.[7]
The statue was struck by lightning during a violent electrical storm on Sunday,
February 10, 2008. The storm caused havoc in Rio, felling trees in several neighbourhoods, but the statue was left unscathed.

Recognitions and honors
In October 2006, on the statue's 75th anniversary,
Archbishop of Rio Cardinal Eusebio Oscar Scheid consecrated a chapel (named for the patron saint of Brazil - Nossa Senhora Aparecida) under the statue. This allows Catholics to hold baptisms and weddings there.[3]
As of
7 July 2007, Christ the Redeemer was named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in a list compiled by the Swiss-based The New Open World Corporation.[10] In Brazil there was a campaign Vote no Cristo (Vote for the Christ) which had the support of private companies.[11] Additionally, leading corporate sponsors including Banco Bradesco and Rede Globo spent "millions" of dollars in the effort to have the statue voted into the top seven.
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Senin, 14 Juli 2008

Eiffel Tower

Named after its designer, engineer
Gustave Eiffel, the Eiffel Tower is the tallest building in Paris and one of the most recognized structures in the world.[1] More than 200,000,000 have visited the tower since its construction in 1889,[2] including 6,719,200 in 2006,[3] making it the most visited paid monument in the world.[4][5] Including the 24 m (79 ft) antenna, the structure is 325 m (1,063 ft) high (since 2000), which is equivalent to about 81 levels in a conventional building.
When the tower was completed in 1889 it was the world's tallest tower — a title it retained until 1930 when New York City's Chrysler Building (319 m — 1,047 ft tall) was completed.[6] The tower is now the fifth-tallest structure in France and the tallest structure in Paris, with the second-tallest being the Tour Montparnasse (210 m — 689 ft), although that will soon be surpassed by Tour AXA (225.11 m — 738.36 ft).
Eiffel Tower from the neighborhood.
The metal structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes while the entire structure including non-metal components is approximately 10,000 tonnes. Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7 in) because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side facing the sun. The tower also sways 6–7 cm (2–3 in) in the wind.
[3] As demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7300 tonnes of the metal structure were melted down it would fill the 125 meter square base to a depth of only 6 cm (2.36 in), assuming a density of the metal to be 7.8 tonnes per cubic meter. The tower has a mass less than the mass of the air contained in a cylinder of the same dimensions,[7] that is 324 meters high and 88.3 meters in radius. The weight of the tower is 10,100 tonnes compared to 10,265 tonnes of air.
The first and second levels are accessible by stairways and lifts. A ticket booth at the south tower base sells tickets to access the stairs which begin at that location. At the first platform the stairs continue up from the east tower and the third level summit is only accessible by lift. From the first or second platform the stairs are open for anyone to ascend or descend regardless of whether they have purchased a lift ticket or stair ticket. The actual count of stairs includes 9 steps to the ticket booth at the base, 328 steps to the first level, 340 steps to the second level and 18 steps to the lift platform on the second level. When exiting the lift at the third level there are 15 more steps to ascend to the upper observation platform. The step count is printed periodically on the side of the stairs to give an indication of progress of ascent. The majority of the ascent allows for an unhindered view of the area directly beneath and around the tower although some short stretches of the stairway are enclosed.
Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tonnes of paint every seven years to protect it from rust. In order to maintain a uniform appearance to an observer on the ground, three separate colors of paint are used on the tower, with the darkest on the bottom and the lightest at the top. On occasion the colour of the paint is changed; the tower is currently painted a shade of brownish-grey.
[8] On the first floor there are interactive consoles hosting a poll for the colour to use for a future session of painting. The co-architects of the Eiffel Tower are Emile Nouguier, Maurice Koechlin and Stephen Sauvestre.[9]

This section does not
cite any references or sources. (March 2008)Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed.
Eiffel Tower under construction in July 1888.
The structure was built between 1887 and 1889 as the entrance arch for the
Exposition Universelle, a World's Fair marking the centennial celebration of the French Revolution. Eiffel originally planned to build the tower in Barcelona, for the Universal Exposition of 1888, but those responsible at the Barcelona city hall thought it was a strange and expensive construction, which did not fit into the design of the city. After the refusal of the Consistory of Barcelona, Eiffel submitted his draft to those responsible for the Universal Exhibition in Paris, where he would build his tower a year later, in 1889. The tower was inaugurated on March 31, 1889, and opened on 6 May. Three hundred workers joined together 18,038 pieces of puddled iron (a very pure form of structural iron), using two and a half million rivets, in a structural design by Maurice Koechlin. The risk of accident was great, for unlike modern skyscrapers the tower is an open frame without any intermediate floors except the two platforms. However, because Eiffel took safety precautions, including the use of movable stagings, guard-rails and screens, only one man died.
Eiffel Tower Construction
The tower was met with much criticism from the public when it was built, with many calling it an eyesore. Newspapers of the day were filled with angry letters from the arts community of Paris. One is quoted extensively in William Watson's US Government Printing Office publication of 1892 Paris Universal Exposition: Civil Engineering, Public Works, and Architecture. “And during twenty years we shall see, stretching over the entire city, still thrilling with the genius of so many centuries, we shall see stretching out like a black blot the odious shadow of the odious column built up of riveted iron plates.”[10] Signers of this letter included Messonier, Gounod, Garnier, Gerome, Bougeureau, and Dumas.
Guy de Maupassant — who claimed to hate the tower — supposedly ate lunch in the Tower's restaurant every day. When asked why, he answered that it was the one place in Paris where you couldn't see the Tower. Today, it is widely considered to be a striking piece of structural art.
One of the great
Hollywood movie clichés is that the view from a Parisian window always includes the tower. In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to 7 stories, only a very few of the taller buildings have a clear view of the tower..
Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years, meaning it would have had to be dismantled in 1909, when its ownership would revert to the
City of Paris. The City had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it could be easily demolished) but as the tower proved valuable for communication purposes, it was allowed to remain after the expiration of the permit. The military used it to dispatch Parisian taxis to the front line during the First Battle of the Marne, and it therefore became a victory statue of that battle.
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Leaning Tower of Pisa

The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply The Tower of Pisa (La Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa. It is situated behind the Cathedral and it is the third structure by time in Pisa's Piazza del Duomo (Cathedral Square).
Although intended to stand vertically, the tower began leaning to the southeast soon after the onset of construction in 1173 due to a poorly laid foundation and loose
substrate that has allowed the foundation to shift direction. The tower presently leans to the southwest.
The height of the tower is 55.86 m (183.27 ft) from the ground on the lowest side and 56.70 m (186.02 ft) on the highest side. The width of the walls at the base is 4.09 m (13.42 ft) and at the top 2.48 m (8.14 ft). Its weight is estimated at 14,500
tonnes. The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. The tower leans at an angle of 3.97 degrees[1]. This means that the top of the tower is 3.9 meters from where it would stand if the tower were perfectly vertical.[2]
The Tower of Pisa was a work of art, performed in three stages over a period of about 177 years. Construction of the first floor of the white marble campanile began on
August 9, 1173, a period of military success and prosperity. This first floor is surrounded by pillars with classical capitals, leaning against blind arches.
The tower began to sink after construction progressed to the third floor in 1178. This was due to a mere three-meter foundation, set in weak, unstable
subsoil. This means the design was flawed from the beginning. Construction was subsequently halted for almost a century, because the Pisans were almost continually engaged in battles with Genoa, Lucca and Florence. This allowed time for the underlying soil to settle. Otherwise, the tower would almost certainly have toppled. In 1198, clocks were temporarily installed on the third floor of the unfinished construction.
In 1272, construction resumed under
Giovanni di Simone, architect of the Camposanto. In an effort to compensate for the tilt, the engineers built higher floors with one side taller than the other. This made the tower begin to lean in the other direction. Because of this, the tower is actually curved.[3] Construction was halted again in 1284, when the Pisans were defeated by the Genoans in the Battle of Meloria.
The seventh floor was completed in 1319. The bell-chamber was not finally added until 1372. It was built by
Tommaso di Andrea Pisano, who succeeded in harmonizing the Gothic elements of the bell-chamber with the Romanesque style of the tower. There are seven bells, one for each note of the musical scale. The largest one was installed in 1655.
After a phase (1990-2001) of structural strengthening, the tower is currently undergoing gradual surface restoration, in order to repair visual damage, mostly corrosion and blackening. These are particularly strong due to the tower's age and to its particular conditions with respect to wind and rain.

The architect
There has been
controversy about the real identity of the architect of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. For many years, the design was attributed to Guglielmo and Bonanno Pisano [5], a well-known 12th-century resident artist of Pisa, famous for his bronze casting, particularly in the Pisa Duomo. Bonanno Pisano left Pisa in 1185 for Monreale, Sicily, only to come back and die in his home town. His sarcophagus was discovered at the foot of the tower in 1820. However recent studies[6] seem to indicate Diotisalvi as the original architect due to the time of construction and affinity with other Diotisalvi works, notably the bell tower of San Nicola (Pisa) and the Baptistery in Pisa. However, he usually signed his works and there is no signature by him in the bell tower which leads to further speculation

Galileo Galilei is said to have dropped two cannon balls of different masses from the tower to demonstrate that their descending speed was independent of their mass. This is considered an apocryphal tale, and the only source for it comes from Galileo's secretary.[7]
In 1934
Benito Mussolini ordered that the tower be returned to a vertical position, so concrete was poured into its foundation. However, the result was that the tower actually sank further into the soil.[8]
World War II, the Allies discovered that the Nazis were using it as an observation post. A U.S. Army sergeant was briefly entrusted with the fate of the tower. His decision not to call in an artillery strike saved the edifice.[8]
February 27, 1964, the government of Italy requested aid in preventing the tower from toppling. It was, however, considered important to retain the current tilt, due to the vital role that this element played in promoting the tourism industry of Pisa. [9] A multinational task force of engineers, mathematicians and historians was assigned and met on the Azores islands to discuss stabilization methods. It was found that the tilt was increasing due to the stonework expanding and contracting each day due to the heat of sunlight[10]. This was working in combination with the softer foundations on the lower side. Many methods were proposed to stabilize the tower, including the addition of 800 metric tons of lead counterweights to the raised end of the base.[11]
7 January 1990, after over two decades of work on the subject, the tower was closed to the public. While the tower was closed, the bells were removed to relieve some weight, and cables were cinched around the third level and anchored several hundred meters away. Apartments and houses in the path of the tower were vacated for safety. The final solution to prevent the collapse of the tower was to slightly straighten the tower to a safer angle, by removing 38 m3 of soil from underneath the raised end. The tower was straightened by 18 inches (45 centimetres), returning to the exact position that it occupied in 1838. After a decade of corrective reconstruction and stabilization efforts, the tower was reopened to the public on December 15, 2001, and has been declared stable for at least another 300 years.[11]
In 1987, the tower was declared as part of the
Piazza dei Miracoli UNESCO World Heritage Site along with neighbouring cathedral, baptistery and cemetery.
In May 2008, after the removal of another 70 tonnes of earth, engineers announced that the Tower had been stabilized such that it had stopped moving for the first time in its history. They stated it would be stable for at least 200 years

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Pekan Olahraga Nasional XVII

Pekan Olahraga Nasional XVII-2008 (PON XVII-2008) adalah Pekan Olahraga Nasional yang akan diselenggarakan di Provinsi Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia dari 5 hingga 17 Juli 2008. Awalnya direncanakan PON XVII akan berlangsung pada Maret 2008, namun KONI kemudian mengubah jadwal atas permintaan pihak penyelenggara akibat belum siapnya infrastruktur serta masalah dana.[4]
Pekan Olahraga Nasional XVII ini merupakan tanggung jawab Pemerintah Provinsi Kalimantan Timur bersama Pemerintah Kota/Kabupaten,
KONI Provinsi beserta jajarannya dan seluruh masyarakat serta rakyat Kalimantan Timur. Hal ini ditegaskan dalam Surat Mendagri No. 426.3/983/SJ tanggal 16 Mei 2002 dan SK KONI Pusat No. 52 Tahun 2002 tanggal 8 Juli 2002
Makna Logo PON XVII – 2008, Samarinda, Kalimantan Timur:
Bagian utama logo berbentuk ekor pesut dalam posisi melambai yang dapat terlihat ketika menyelam, dari atas permukaan air menggambarkan lambaian salam selamat datang.
Tiga buah ring berwarna biru, bermakna PON XVII, menjunjung kekompakan dan persatuan untuk mencapai tri sukses PON yaitu sukses prestasi, sukses penyelenggaraan dan sukses pemberdayaan ekonomi rakyat.
Bentuk lengkung motif khas Kalimantan Timur ini melambangkan deburan ombak Sungai Mahakam yang merupakan tempat habitat Pesut.
Tulisan "Kaltim 2008" dan "PON XVII" memberikan informasi bahwa Kalimantan Timur sebagai tuan rumah penyelenggara Pekan Olahraga Nasional XVII.
Slogan "Kita semua satu !" ini bermakna semua peserta PON berlomba untuk daerah masing-masing, namun pada hekekatnya semua adalah satu, Bangsa Indonesia.
Maskot untuk PON XVII terbagi menjadi tiga jenis binatang langka yang terdapat di
Kalimantan Timur, masing-masing maskot tersebut melambangkan jenis olahraga berdasarkan lokasi udara, air dan darat. Terdapat pula piktogram dari masing-masing jenis olahraga yang dipertandingan. Maskot-maskot tersebut adalah:[5]
Burung Enggang: Maskot untuk cabang olahraga udara
Burung Enggang sangat dekat dengan kehidupan masyarakat Kalimantan Timur. Wajah Engang dengan mulut tersenyum menandakan masyarakat Kalimantan Timur yang ramah dan mulut sedikit terbuka mengisyaratkan atau memanggil seluruh rakyat Indonesia untuk berkumpul dan bersatu di Bumi Etam. Sayap tangan yang memegang medali menandakan suatu prestasi yang baik dicapai dengan upaya yang positif dan menjujung tinggi sportifitas.
Pesut Mahakam: Maskot untuk cabang olahraga air
Pesut merupakan hewan khas perairan
Sungai Mahakam yang populasinya sudah sangat langka. Wajah Pesut yang tersenyum sebagai pertanda masyarakat Kalimantan Timur yang ramah dan bersahaja.
Orangutan: Maskot untuk cabang olahraga darat
Orangutan mengambil bentuk posisi seakan sedang berlari dengan membawa obor api PON. Wajah Orang Utan dengan mulut tersenyum memberikan kesan yang ceria, ramah tamah dan suka cita menyambut PON XVII di Kalimantan Timur
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Partai Komunis Indonesia

Pembentukan Partai Komunis
Pada awalnya PKI adalah gerakan yang menyusup ke dalam Sarekat Islam. Keadaan yang semakin parah dimana ada perselisihan antara para anggotanya, terutama di
Semarang dan Yogyakarta membuat Sarekat Islam melaksanakan disiplin partai. Yakni melarang anggotanya mendapat gelar ganda di kancah perjuangan pergerakan indonesia. Keputusan tersebut tentu saja membuat para anggota yang beraliran komunis kesal dan keluar dari partai dan membentuk partai baru yang disebut ISDV. Pada Kongres ISDV di Semarang (Mei 1920), nama organisasi ini diubah menjadi Perserikatan Komunis di Hindia. Semaun diangkat sebagai ketua partai.
PKH adalah partai komunis pertama di Asia yang menjadi bagian dari
Komunis Internasional. Henk Sneevliet mewakili partai ini pada kongresnya kedua Komunis Internasional pada 1920.
1924 nama partai ini sekali lagi diubah, kali ini adalah menjadi Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI).

Pemberontakan 1926
Pada November
1926 PKI memimpin pemberontakan melawan pemerintahan kolonial di Jawa Barat dan Sumatra Barat. PKI mengumumkan terbentuknya sebuah republik. Pemberontakan ini dihancurkan dengan brutal oleh penguasa kolonial. Ribuan orang dibunuh dan sekitar 13.000 orang ditahan. Sejumlah 1.308 orang, umumnya kader-kader partai, dikirim ke Boven Digul, sebuah kamp tahanan di Papua [2]. Beberapa orang meninggal di dalam tahanan. Banyak aktivis politik non-komunis yang juga menjadi sasaran pemerintahan kolonial, dengan alasan menindas pemberontakan kaum komunis. Pada 1927 PKI dinyatakan terlarang oleh pemerintahan Belanda. Karena itu, PKI kemudian bergerak di bawah tanah.
Rencana pemberontakan itu sendiri sudah dirancang sejak lama. Yakni didalam perundingan rahasia aktivis PKI di Prambanan. Rencana itu ditolak tegas oleh
Tan Malaka, salah satu tokoh utama PKI yang mempunyai banyak massa terutama di Sumatra. Penolakan tersebut membuat Tan Malaka di cap sebagai pengikut Lev Trotsky yang juga sebagai tokoh sentral perjuangan Revolusi Rusia. Walau begitu, beberapa aksi PKI justru terjadi setelah pemberontakan di Jawa terjadi. Semisal Pemberontakan Silungkang di Sumatra.
Pada masa awal pelarangan ini, PKI berusaha untuk tidak menonjolkan diri, terutama karena banyak dari pemimpinnya yang dipenjarakan. Pada
1935 pemimpin PKI Musso kembali dari pembuangan di Moskwa, Uni Soviet, untuk menata kembali PKI dalam gerakannya di bawh tanah. Namun Musso hanya tinggal sebentar di Indonesia. Kini PKI bergerak dalam berbagai front, seperti misalnya Gerindo dan serikat-serikat buruh. Di Belanda, PKI mulai bergerak di antara mahasiswa-mahasiswa Indonesia di kalangan organisasi nasionalis, Perhimpoenan Indonesia , yang tak lama kemudian berada di dalam kontrol PKI [3].

Setelah kemerdekaan: bangkit kembali
Setelah pemerintahan
Jepang menyerah kalah kepada Tentara Sekutu pada 1945, PKI muncul kembali di panggung politik Indonesia dan ikut serta secara aktif dalam perjuangan untuk merebut kemerdekaan nasional. Banyak satuan-satuan bersenjata yang berada di bawah kontrol ataupun pengaruh PKI. Meskipun milisi-milisi PKI memainkan peranan penting dalam perlawanan terhadap Belanda, Soekarno khawatir bahwa semakin kuatnya pengaruh PKI akhirnya akan mengancam posisinya. Lain daripada itu, perkembangan PKI dirasakan sangat mengancam kelompok-kelompok kanan dalam dunia politik Indonesia, maupun Amerika Serikat.

Peristiwa Madiun 1948
Pada Februari 1948 PKI dan unsur-unsur kiri dari Partai Sosialis Indonesia membentuk sebuah front bersama, yaitu
Front Demokratis Rakjat. Front ini tidak bertahan lama, namun unsur-unsur kiri Psi kemudian bergabung dengan PKI. Pada saat ini milisi-milisi Pesindo berada di bawah kontrol PKI.
11 Agustus 1948 Musso kembali ke Jakarta setelah mengembara selama 12 tahun di Uni Soviet tanpa pemberitahuan dan penjelasan yang kuat. Politbiro PKI dibentuk kembali, dengan pemimpinnya antara lain Dipa Nusantara Aidit, M.H. Lukman dan Njoto.
Setelah penandatanganan
Perjanjian Renville (1948), banyak satuan-satuan bersenjata republiken yang kembali dari daerah-daerah konflik. Hal ini memberikan rasa percaya diri di kalangan kelompok sayap kanan Indonesia bahwa mereka akan mampu menandingi PKI secara militer. Satuan-satuan gerilya dan milisi yang berada di bawah pengaruh PKI diperintahkan untuk membubarkan diri. Di Madiun, sekelompok militer yang dipengaruhi PKI yang menolak perintah perlucutan senjata tersebut dibunuh pada bulan September tahun yang sama. Pembunuhan ini menimbulkan pemberontakan bersenjata. Hal ini menimbulkan alasan untuk menekan PKI. Sumber-sumber militer menyatakan bahwa PKI telah memproklamasikan pembentukan “Republik Soviet Indonesia” pada 18 September 1948 dengan Musso sebagai presidennya dan Amir Sjarifuddin sebagai perdana menterinya. Pada saat yang sama PKI menyatakan menolak pemberontakan itu dan menyerukan agar masyarakat tetap tenang. Pemberontakan ini ditindas oleh pasukan-pasukan republik, dan PKI kembali mengalami masa penindasan. Pada 30 September Madiun berhasil dikuasai oleh pasukan-pasukan Republik dari Divisi Siliwangi. Beribu-ribu kader partai dibunuh dan 36.000 orang dipenjarakan. Di antara mereka yang dibunuh termasuk Musso yang dibunuh pada 31 Oktober dengan alasan bahwa ia berusaha melarikan diri dari penjara. Amir Sjarifuddin, tokoh Partai Sosialis Indonesia, pun dibunuh pada peristiwa berdarah ini. Aidit dan Lukman mengungsi ke Republik Rakyat Tiongkok. Namun PKI tidak dilarang dan terus berfungsi. Pada 1949 partai ini mulai dibangun kembali. Walau begitu, ada sejarawan yang mengatakan bahwa kasus tersebut adalah murni kesalahpahaman di dalam tubuh TNI saat itu. Apapun itu, gerakan pemberontakan Madiun telah memberi kesempatan bagi pemimpin Indonesia guna menghadapi Belanda lewat tekanan politik. Hal ini membuktikan pada Amerika Serikat bahwa Indonesia punya peluang besar menjadi negara komunis berkurang. Sekaligus memberi kesempatan Soviet untuk mengevaluasi kegagalan Musso di Madiun

Bangkit kembali
1950, PKI memulai kembali kegiatan penerbitannya, dengan organ-organ utamanya yaitu Harian Rakjat dan Bintang Merah. Pada 1950-an, PKI mengambil posisi sebagai partai nasionalis di bawah pimpinan D.N. Aidit, dan mendukung kebijakan-kebijakan anti kolonialis dan anti Barat yang diambil oleh Presiden Soekarno. Adit dan kelompok di sekitarnya, termasuk pemimpin-pemimpin muda seperti Sudisman, Lukman, Njoto dan Sakirman, menguasai pimpinan partai pada 1951. Pada saat itu, tak satupun di antara mereka yang berusia lebih dari 30 tahun. Di bawah Aidit, PKI berkembang dengan sangat cepat, dari sekitar 3.000-5.000 anggota pada 1950, menjadi 165 000 pada 1954 dan bahkan 1,5 juta pada 1959 [4]
Pada Agustus 1951, PKI memimpin serangkaian pemogokan militan, yang diikuti oleh tindakan-tindakan tegas terhadap PKI di
Medan dan Jakarta. Akibatnya, para pemimpin PKI kembali bergerak di bawah tanah untuk sementara waktu

Pemilu 1955
pemilu 1955, PKI menempati tempat keempat dengan 16% dari keseluruhan suara. Partai ini memperoleh 39 kursi (dari 257 kursi yang diperebutkan) dan 80 dari 514 kursi di Dewan Konstituante.
Perlawanan terhadap kontrol Belanda atas
Papua merupakan masalah yang seringkali diangkat oleh PKI selama tahun 1950-an.
Pada Juli
1957, kantor PKI di Jakarta diserang dengan granat. Pada bulan yang sama PKI memperoleh banyak kemajuan dalam pemilihan-pemilihan di kota-kota. Pada September tahun yang sama, Masjumi secara terbuka menuntut supaya PKI dilarang [5].
3 Desember, serikat-serikat buruh, yang pada umumnya berada di bawah pengaruh PKI, mulai menguasai perusahaan-perusahaan milik Belanda. Penguasaan ini merintis nasionalisasi atas perusahaan-perusahaan yang dimiliki oleh asing. Perjuangan melawan para kapitalis asing memberikan PKI kesempatan untuk menampilkan diri sebagai sebuah partai nasional.
Pada Februari
1958 terjadi sebuah upaya kudeta yang dilakukan oleh kekuatan-kekuatan pro Amerika Serikat di kalangan militer dan politik sayap kanan. Para pemberontak, yang berbasis di Sumatra dan Sulawesi, mengumumkan pada 15 Februari terbentuknya Pemerintah Revolusioner Republik Indonesia (PRRI). Pemerintahan yang disebut revolusioner ini segera menangkapi ribuan kader PKI di wilayah-wilayah yang berada di bawah kontrol mereka. PKI mendukung upaya-upaya Soekarno untuk memadamkan pemberontakan ini, termasuk pemberlakuan Undang-Undang Darurat. Pemberontakan ini pada akhirnya berhasil dipadamkan.
1959 militer berusaha menghalangi diselenggarakannya kongres PKI. Namun demikian, kongres ini berlangsung sesuai dengan jadwal, dan Presiden Soekarno sendiri menyampaikan sambutannya. Pada 1960, Soekarno melancarkan slogan Nasakom, yang merupakan singkatan dari Nasionalisme, Agama, dan Komunisme. Dengan demikian peranan PKI sebagai mitra dalam politik Soekarno dilembagakan. PKI membalasnya dengan menanggapi konsep Nasakom secara positif, dan melihatnya sebagai sebuah front bersatu yang multi-kelas.
Meskipun PKI mendukung Sukarno, ia tidak kehilangan otonomi politiknya. Pada Maret
1960, PKI mengecam penanganan anggaran yang tidak demokratis oleh Soekarno. Pada 8 Juli 1960, Harian Rakjat memuat sebuah artikel yang kritis terhadap pemerintah. Para pemimpin PKI ditangkap oleh militer, namun kemudian dibebaskan kembali atas perintah Soekarno.
Ketika gagasan tentang Malaysia berkembang, PKI maupun Partai Komunis Malaya menolaknya.
Dengan berkembangnya dukungan dan keanggotaan yang mencapai 3 juta orang pada 1965, PKI menjadi partai komunis terkuat di luar Uni Soviet dan RRT. Partai itu mempunyai basis yang kuat dalam sejumlah organisasi massa, seperti SOBSI (
Sentral Organisasi Buruh Seluruh Indonesia), Pemuda Rakyat, Gerwani, Barisan Tani Indonesia (BTI), Lembaga Kebudayaan Rakyat (Lekra) dan Himpunan Sarjana Indonesia (HSI). Menurut perkiraan, seluruh anggota partai dan organisasi-organisasi yang berada di bawah payungnya mungkin mencapai seperlima dari seluruh rakyat Indonesia.
Pada Maret
1962, PKI bergabung dengan pemerintah. Para pemimpin PKI, Aidit dan Njoto, diangkat menjadi menteri penasihat. Pada bulan April, PKI menyelenggarakan kongres partainya. Pada 1963, pemerintah Malaysia, Indonesia dan Filipina terlibat dalam pembahasan tentang pertikaian wilayah dan kemungkinan tentang pembentukan sebuah Konfederasi Maphilindo, sebuah gagasan yang dikemukakan oleh presiden Filipina, Diosdado Macapagal. PKI menolak gagasan pembentukan Maphilindo dan federasi Malaysia. Para anggota PKI yang militan menyeberang masuk ke Malaysia dan terlibat dalam pertempuran-pertempuran dengan pasukan-pasukan Britania dan Australia. Sebagian kelompok berhasil mencapai Malaya, lalu bergabung dalam perjuangan di sana. Namun demikian, kebanyakan dari mereka ditangkap begitu tiba. Kebanyakan dari satuan-satuan tempur PKI aktif di wilayah perbatasan di Kalimantan.
Pada Januari 1954, PKI mulai menyita hak milik Britania kepunyaan perusahaan-perusahaan Britania di Indonesia.
Pada era akhir kekuasaan
Soekarno, munculah suatu insiden pembunuhan jendral-jendral TNI yang disebut insiden G30S. Dalam era ketidak jelasan dan kekacauan ini membuat PKI dan Soekarno dalam masalah besar. Yaitu menghadapi krisis nasional. Dengan alasan 'keterlibatan PKI dalam G30S', partai ini dilarang oleh Pangkopkamtib Soeharto pada tanggal 12 Maret 1966, setelah mendapat Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret dari Presiden Soekarno. Yang kemudian diklaim oleh Soeharto sebagai tonggak utama kekuatan politiknya.
Setelah itu bermula sebuah sejarah hitam bangsa Indonesia di mana ribuan orang tak bersalah -- terutama di pulau
Jawa dan Bali -- dibantai secara sia-sia karena dituduh komunis.
Menurut beberapa sumber antara 500.000 jiwa sampai 2 juta jiwa tewas dibunuh. Ribuan lainnya mendekam di penjara atau dibuang ke pulau
Sebuah upaya
rekonsiliasi dan rehabilitasi yang diprakarsai oleh (mantan) presiden Gus Dur, ketika ia masih menjabat sebagai presiden diprotes beberapa partai, terutama yang berlatar belakang agama di Indonesia. Usul rekonsiliasi oleh Gus Dur telah membuka kesempatan bagi orang-orang yang masih percaya pada ideologi berhaluan kiri untuk kembali aktif dalam politik Indonesia, yaitu memiliki hak untuk memilih. Sesuatu hal yang tak didapatkan pada era Soeharto.
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